Elite - tomographic study of democratic citizenship "Europeanisation"
Author：Chien-Yi Lu, Associate Research Fellow
Author：Chien-Yi Lu Associate Research Fellow
In recent years, about the "Europeanization" (Europeanization) research focus has gradually shifted from re-definition of "Europeanisation" concept, instead focusing on the discussion of "Europeanisation" concept "usefulness (usefulness)" is. To understand the "Europeanization" concept to enhance the "usefulness" of understanding on the EU can provide, this study will invoke the recent new 'Europeanisation' research and thinking, to analyze and to further explore the different levels of European integration for actors caused by the impact.
Review of previous research literature shows that "Europeanization" already occurred in the political structure of Europe's "top", but at the "bottom" it has not happened yet. "Europeanization" rely on the occurrence of a "mechanism" If you continue to exist in the upper layer alone but not in the bottom, then this "asymmetric Europeanisation" will allow future EU democratic deficit problem is getting worse.However, the democratic deficit, regardless of the question involved the causes, nature, or countermeasures of view from both broad and miscellaneous for the urgent need to break through by different scholars vision and approach, and then come up with innovative ideas. Accordingly, this paper special phenomenon in the EU's democratic deficit, for example, in order to explain "Europeanisation" study practicality. The study found that from the way the concept of "Europeanization" Anatomy democratic deficit issue, not only is the application of another new thinking confirms earlier proven democratic deficit phenomenon itself, but through the "Europeanization" concept, providing new research horizons, and thereby compensate for the lack of old thinking.
Findings and discussion
First, the existing "Europeanisation" study, who were "Europeanisation" of?
Jeffrey Anderson noted that the European research exist and flourish for many years, but research on the impact of European integration on Member States that is always focused on political institutions - such as administrative units, Congress, the judiciary system or public policy-making process. In contrast, political parties, party system, interest groups, the degree of civic values and attitudes in Europe, scholars did not devote sufficient attention. Therefore, the object of the European system of organization is often at first glance, but the Europe of the "ultimate target" after all actors. This section to clarify the question is: in the existing European research, the actors "are Europeanization" is part of "the top", "middle" or "bottom"?
In this study capture part of "Europeanisation" sample, namely, 123 journal articles, papers European part of the object at the same time covering more than two levels of actors. Overall, the top European actors object containing papers have 55; with middle actors have 70; with the underlying actors only eight; the remaining contents of the paper is not suitable to do this classification."Europeanisation" as a phenomenon, specifically for this phenomenon to some extent inevitable accumulation of research scholars see reflected in the eyes of European. If the "bottom" of the most active in Europe, the most frequent occurrence level, studies of scholars in Europe can not be carried out are concentrated in the "top level." Since a considerable extent, the existing research is able to reflect the actual situation, the above analysis tells us, citizens of the European elite and the degree of difference is very impressive; it can be used to map a presentation.
Johan P. Olsen, “The Many Faces of Europeanization,” Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 40, No. 5 (December 2002), p. 922.
Edward C. Page and Vincent Wright, “Introduction: From the Active to the Enabling State,” in Edward C. Page and Vincent Wright eds. From the Active to the Enabling State—The Changing Role of Top Officials in European Nation (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), p.9.
Jeffrey J. Anderson, “Europeanization and the Transformation of the Democratic Polity, 1945-2000,” Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 40, No. 5 (December 2002), p. 796.